Perioperative Anesthesia and Analgesia in Total Joint Arthroplasty Guidelines 2020| Volume 35, ISSUE 10, P2715-2729, October 2020

The Efficacy and Safety of Acetaminophen in Total Joint Arthroplasty: Systematic Review and Direct Meta-Analysis



      Oral and intravenous (IV) acetaminophen has become widely used perioperatively as part of a multi-modal pain management protocol for primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The purpose of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acetaminophen in support of the combined clinical practice guidelines of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Hip Society, Knee Society, and American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management.


      We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies published prior to September 2019 on acetaminophen in primary TJA. All included studies underwent qualitative and quantitative homogeneity testing followed by a systematic review and direct comparison meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of acetaminophen.


      In total, 1287 publications were critically appraised yielding 17 publications representing the best available evidence for analysis. Oral and IV acetaminophen demonstrates the ability to safely reduce postoperative pain and opioid consumption during the inpatient hospital stay. No evidence was available to assess the efficacy and safety of oral acetaminophen after discharge.


      Moderate evidence supports the use of oral and IV acetaminophen as a non-opioid adjunct for pain management during the inpatient hospitalization. Strong evidence supports the safety of oral and IV acetaminophen when appropriately administered to patients undergoing primary TJA. Although there is lack of robust evidence for use of acetaminophen following discharge, it remains a low-cost and low-risk option as part of a multimodal pain regimen.


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