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What Is the 30-Day Mortality Burden After Elective Total Hip Arthroplasty? An Analysis of 194,062 Patients

      Abstract

      Background

      This study aims to answer the following questions regarding elective total hip arthroplasty (THA): What is (1) the overall 30-day mortality rate; (2) the mortality rate when stratified by age, comorbidities, and preoperative diagnosis; and (3) the distribution of patient demographics, comorbidities, and preoperative diagnoses between the mortality and mortality-free cohorts?

      Methods

      The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was reviewed for all patients undergoing elective primary THA (2011-2018). A total of 194,062 patients were categorized based on the incidence of 30-day mortality (mortality: n = 206 vs mortality-free: n = 193,856). Patient demographics, comorbidities, and preoperative diagnosis (osteoarthritis [OA] vs non-OA) were recorded. Age category, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, and modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores were normalized per 1000 and stratified by preoperative diagnosis.

      Results

      The 30-day mortality rate was 0.11%. The percentage of deaths per age group (normalized per 1000) was 0% (18-29 years), 0% (30-39 years), 0.049% (40-49 years), 0.052%(50-59 years), 0.071% (60-69 years), 0.133% (70-79 years), and 0.352% (80-89 years). The percentage of deaths per ASA score was 0% (ASA I), 0.035% (ASA II), 0.174% (ASA III), and 1.008% (ASA IV). The percentage of deaths per CCI score was 0.09% (CCI = 0), 0.23% (CCI = 1), 0.74% (CCI = 2), 3.21% (CCI = 3), 4.76% (CCI = 4), and 0.57% (CCI ≥ 5). Non-OA diagnoses were significantly more frequent in the mortality cohort (16.0% vs 7.6%; P < .001).

      Conclusion

      The risk of mortality was highest in patients aged 80-89, patients of ASA class IV, patients with a CCI score of 4, and patients with a non-OA diagnosis. The overall rate of death was higher in the non-OA cohort compared to the OA cohort.

      Level of Evidence

      III.

      Keywords

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