Are Patient-Reported Drug Allergies Associated With Prosthetic Joint Infections and Functional Outcomes Following Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty?

Published:September 18, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.09.008

      Abstract

      Background

      The purpose of this study is to determine if the number and types of patient-reported drug allergies are associated with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and functional outcomes following total joint arthroplasty (TJA).

      Methods

      This is a retrospective review of all patients who underwent a primary, elective total hip (THA) or knee arthroplasty (TKA) over a 10-year period at a single academic institution. Demographic, clinical information, and number and type of patient-reported drug allergy was collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify risk factors for PJI and risk of PJI based on number of allergies. Univariate analysis was also performed to identify if the number of patient-reported allergies affected functional outcome scores.

      Results

      Of 31,109 patients analyzed, there were 941 (3%) revisions for infection (491 knees and 450 hips). At least one allergy was reported by 16,435 (52.8%) patients, with a mean of 1.2 ± 1.9. Those who underwent revision for infection had a significantly higher number of reported allergies (1.68 ± 1.9 vs 1.23 ± 1.9, P < .0005, 95% confidence interval −0.58 to 0.33). On univariate regression the number of allergies independently predicted revision TJA for infection (P < .0001) as did age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. On multivariate regression for each additional patient-reported allergy, risk of PJI increased by 1.11 times (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.14, P < .0001). Number of patient-reported allergies did not predict 3-month or 1-year functional outcome scores.

      Conclusion

      Patients with a higher number of reported allergies may be at increased risk of PJI following TJA.

      Level of Evidence

      Prognostic Level II.

      Keywords

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