Preoperative Weight Loss and Postoperative Weight Gain Independently Increase Risk for Revision After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

Published:December 13, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.12.003

      Abstract

      Background

      The current American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons (AAHKS) guidelines recommend preoperative weight loss before total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m2. However, there is a paucity of evidence on TKA outcomes after preoperative weight loss. This study therefore evaluated predictors of preoperative and postoperative BMI changes and their impact on outcomes after TKA.

      Methods

      This is a retrospective review of 3058 primary TKAs at an academic institution from 2015 to 2019. BMI was collected on the day of surgery. Preoperative and postoperative BMI at 6 months and 1 year were also obtained. BMI change of ≥5% was considered clinically significant. Mean follow-up was 3.2 years. Patient demographics, acute postoperative outcomes, and all-cause revisions were compared between patients who gained, lost, or maintained weight using univariate and multivariable analyses.

      Results

      Preoperative weight loss was predictive of postoperative weight gain (P < .001), and preoperative weight gain was predictive of postoperative weight loss (P < .001). Cox regression analysis revealed that ≥5% BMI loss preoperatively increased risk for all-cause revisions (P = .030), while ≥5% BMI gain postoperatively increased risk for prosthetic joint infections (P = .016). Patients who lost significant weight both before and after surgery had the highest risk for all-cause revisions (P = .022).

      Conclusion

      Weight gain postoperatively was associated with inferior outcomes. Significant weight loss before surgery led to a “rebound” in weight gain, and independently increased risk for all-cause revision. Therefore, current recommendations for weight loss before TKA in morbidly obese patients should be re-evaluated.

      Keywords

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