Improving Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury Rates Following Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty

Published:December 20, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.12.019

      Abstract

      Background

      Perioperative hip and knee arthroplasty complications remain a significant clinical and financial burden. Our institution has shifted to developing protocols to decrease these perioperative complications. This study focuses on acute kidney injury (AKI) rate status post primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Current literature demonstrates a 2%-15% incidence of AKI following TJA. However, there is a paucity of published literature on protocols that have effectively reduced AKI rates following TJA. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect that our institutionally developed perioperative renal protocol had on the postoperative AKI rates.

      Methods

      A retrospective cohort study was performed. Patient demographics, baseline creatinine, and postoperative creatinine values during the patient’s hospitalization were collected and analyzed. The preintervention cohort data contained all patients at our institution who underwent a primary TJA from November 1, 2016 to January 1, 2018. The postintervention cohort included all primary TJA patients from July 1, 2018 to February 2, 2020. AKI was defined using the AKI Network classification system comparing baseline and postoperative creatinine values. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the statistical significance of our results.

      Results

      Before intervention 1013 patients underwent a primary TJA with 68 patients developing an AKI postoperatively. After intervention 2169 patients underwent primary TJA with 90 patients developing an AKI (6.71% vs 4.15%; P = .0015, odds ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval = 0.42-0.82).

      Conclusion

      This study demonstrated that implementation of a perioperative renal protocol can significantly reduce AKI rates. A reduction in AKI rates following TJA will result in improved outcomes and secondarily decrease the financial impact of postoperative complications seen following TJA.

      Keywords

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