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Synovial C-Reactive Protein is a Useful Adjunct for Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infection

      Abstract

      Background

      The diagnostic utility of synovial C-reactive protein (CRP) has been debated for a while. Existing studies are limited by small sample sizes and using outdated criteria for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Furthermore, the relationship between synovial and serum CRP has rarely been investigated in the setting of PJI. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of synovial CRP and to assess its relationship with serum CRP and other common biomarkers.

      Methods

      We reviewed 621 patients who underwent evaluation for PJI prior to revision arthroplasty from 2014 to 2021. Biomarkers, including serum CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, synovial CRP, polymorphonuclear leukocyte percentage, white blood cell count, and alpha-defensin, were evaluated using the 2018 International Consensus Meeting criteria.

      Results

      In total, 194 patients had a PJI; 394 were considered aseptic failures and 33 were inconclusive. Synovial CRP showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.951 (95% CI, 0.932-0.970) with 74.2% sensitivity and 98.0% specificity, whereas, serum CRP had an AUC of 0.926 (95% CI, 0.903-0.949) with 83.5% sensitivity and 88.3% specificity. There was a good correlation between synovial and serum CRP (R = 0.703; 95% CI, 0.604-0.785). The combination of serum and synovial CRP yielded a significantly higher AUC than that obtained when using serum CRP alone (AUC 0.964 versus 0.926, P = .016).

      Conclusion

      Synovial CRP demonstrated excellent accuracy when used to determine the presence of PJI. There was a good correlation between serum and synovial CRP levels in revision arthroplasty patients and the combined use of serum and synovial CRP proved to be more accurate than the serum test alone. These findings support the use of synovial CRP as an adjunct in the workup of PJI.

      Keywords

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