Poor Patient Compliance Limits the Attainability of Patient-Reported Outcome Measure Completion Thresholds for the Comprehensive Care for Joint Arthroplasty Model

Published:November 08, 2022DOI:



      The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) links patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) with hospital reimbursement in some value-based models for total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This study evaluates PROM reporting compliance and resource utilization using protocol-driven electronic collection of outcomes for commercial and CMS alternative payment models (APMs).


      We analyzed a consecutive series of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) from 2016 and 2019. Compliance rates were obtained for reporting hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score for joint replacement (HOOS-JR.), knee disability and osteoarthritis outcome score for joint replacement (KOOS-JR.), and 12-item short form survey (SF-12) surveys preoperatively and postoperatively at 6-months, 1 year, and 2- years. Of 43,252 THA and TKA patients, 25,315 (58%) were Medicare-only. Direct supply and staff labor costs for PROM collection were obtained. Chi-square testing compared compliance rates between Medicare-only and all-arthroplasty groups. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) estimated resource utilization for PROM collection.


      In the Medicare-only cohort, preoperative HOOS-JR./KOOS-JR. compliance was 66.6%. Postoperative HOOS-JR./KOOS-JR. compliance was 29.9%, 46.1%, and 27.8% at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years, respectively. Preoperative SF-12 compliance was 70%. Postoperative SF-12 compliance was 35.9%, 49.6%, and 33.4% at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years, respectively. Medicare patients had lower PROM compliance than the overall cohort (P < .05) at all time points except preoperative KOOS-JR., HOOS-JR., and SF-12 in TKA patients. The estimated annual cost for PROM collection was $273,682 and the total cost for the entire study period was $986,369.


      Despite extensive experience with APMs and a total expenditure near $1,000,000, our center demonstrated low preoperative and postoperative PROM compliance rates. In order for practices to achieve satisfactory compliance, Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) compensation should be adjusted to reflect the costs associated with collecting these PROMs and CJR target compliance rates should be adjusted to reflect more attainable levels consistent with currently published literature.


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