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Relationships Between Preoperative Mental Health and Improvements in Patient-Reported Outcomes After Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

Published:October 31, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2022.10.043

      Abstract

      Background

      Poor preoperative mental health has been associated with worse outcomes after total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). To fully understand these relationships, we assessed post-THA and post-TKA improvements in patient-reported mental and joint health by preoperative mental health groups.

      Methods

      Elective cases (367 THA, 462 TKA) were subgrouped by low (<25th percentile), middle (25th-74th), and high (≥75th) preoperative mental health, using Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores. In each subgroup, we assessed the relationship between preoperative MCS and 1-year postoperative change in mental and joint health. Pairwise comparisons and multivariable regression models were applied for THA and TKA separately.

      Results

      Median postoperative mental health change was +14.0 points for the low-MCS THA group, +11.1 low-TKA, +2.0 middle-THA and TKA, −4.0 high-THA, and −4.9 high-TKA (between-group differences P < .001). All MCS groups had improved median joint health scores, without significant between-group differences. Preoperative mental health was negatively associated with mental health improvements in all groups (B = −0.94 - −0.68, P < .001-P = .01) but with improvements in joint health only in the low-THA group (B = −0.74, P = .02). Improvements in mental and joint health were positively associated for low and middle (B = 0.61-0.87, P < .001), but not for high-MCS groups, with this relationship differing for the low versus high group.

      Conclusion

      Patients who have low preoperative mental health experienced greater postoperative mental health improvement and similar joint health improvement compared to patients who have high preoperative mental health. Findings can guide subgroup-targeted surgical decision-making and preoperative counseling.

      Keywords

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